When to Fuel Up: Should You Eat Before or After Your Workout?

Discover the benefits of pre and post-workout nutrition strategies to supercharge muscle recovery and optimize your fitness goals.

Sarah Zimmer, PT, DPT
— Signos
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Updated by

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Science-based and reviewed

February 23, 2024
September 18, 2023
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The relationship between nutrition and exercise is critical to achieving fitness goals and weight loss, as it directly affects performance, recovery, and overall health. To determine whether you should eat before or after your workout, it's essential to understand the connection between eating and exercise. Proper fuel before a workout gives your body sufficient energy to perform at its best without causing harm or injury.1 On the other hand, focusing on post-exercise nutrition helps to enhance your recovery, build muscle, and prevent burnout or overtraining. 

So which is better? The answer is both are important, regardless of if you are just starting to exercise or have been training for years. Implementing the right nutrition strategy can significantly impact your fitness goals, your blood sugar levels, and your weight loss success. 


The Connection Between Eating and Exercise

Before delving into whether to eat before or after your workout, let's explore the connection between nutrition and exercise. Food provides the body with energy in the form of calories. When you consume food, your body converts it into glucose, which is used as fuel during physical activity. 

Without adequate energy, your workout performance can suffer, leaving you feeling fatigued and unable to push your limits. After a workout, the body enters a recovery phase, which repairs damaged tissues and replenishes energy stores. Proper nutrition post-exercise can enhance this recovery process, reducing the risk of injury and muscle soreness. 

The timing of your meals is crucial in maximizing your workouts and facilitating post-exercise recovery, as your body requires readily available macronutrients at various times and for various exercise intensities.1,3 

Here are a few specific reasons why meal timing is important for optimizing your workouts, health, and recovery:

  1. Energy Levels and Performance: Eating strategically before your workout ensures you have enough readily available energy (in the form of glucose) to power through your exercise session. When you have sufficient energy, you can exercise at a higher intensity and for a longer duration, potentially leading to better results.
  2. Preventing Muscle Breakdown: During exercise, especially in a fasted state, your body may break down muscle tissue for energy after it has burned through its carbohydrate and fat stores. Eating a balanced meal or snack before your workout can help prevent muscle breakdown by providing the necessary amino acids and energy to sustain your efforts.4
  3. Enhancing Muscle Protein Synthesis: Protein is essential for muscle repair and growth. Consuming protein-rich meals or snacks after your workout helps initiate muscle protein synthesis, a process crucial for rebuilding and repairing the muscle fibers damaged during exercise. Timing your protein intake within two hours post-exercise can optimize this response.2,4
  4. Glycogen Replenishment: Intense workouts can deplete your glycogen stores, a primary energy source during exercise. Consuming carbohydrates after your workout helps replenish glycogen stores more efficiently, ensuring you have enough energy for your next training session.
  5. Recovery and Tissue Repair: After exercise, your body goes into a recovery mode to repair damaged tissues and adapt to the stress of your workout. Proper meal timing post-exercise provides the nutrients needed for this recovery process, reducing the risk of injury and muscle soreness.4,5
  6. Blood Sugar Regulation: Proper meal timing helps regulate blood sugar levels, preventing energy crashes during and after workouts.6

Eating Before a Workout

Eating before a workout offers several important benefits, each contributing to optimizing your exercise performance and fitness. This includes providing sufficient energy to sustain higher intensities and longer durations of exercise, improve your performance in your workouts, prevent excessive fatigue, enhance your mental focus, and help regulate your blood sugar levels.1  

Feeling heavy during exercise is a common concern among individuals debating whether to eat before a workout. This concern arises from the belief that food might cause discomfort, sluggishness, or digestive issues during physical activity. While it's essential to address this concern, it's equally crucial to understand how to eat to minimize these concerns and maximize the benefits of pre-workout nutrition. 

Ways to prevent GI distress and feeling heavy during exercise include timing your pre-workout meal to be one to two hours before exercise, choosing easily digestible foods like low-fiber carbohydrates or liquid calories, and experimenting with different foods to find what works for you.3 If you exercise in the morning before breakfast, try a pre-workout drink or orange juice to help reduce discomfort during your early morning workout. 


Pre-Workout Nutrition Options

The amount and type of nutrition your body needs may differ depending on the length and intensity of your workout. Going for a longer run means getting adequate calories and carbohydrates, whereas a resistance-based workout may require more protein.1 If you are looking for ideas or recipes, try these healthy and delicious pre-workout nutrition options before your next workout: 

  • Fruit smoothie: Aim for a recipe that includes enough carbohydrates, protein, and healthy fats if eating a smoothie as a pre-workout snack. Try adding bananas or oats for your carbohydrates, protein powder or peanut butter, and avocado or chia seeds for healthy fats.   
  • Greek yogurt topped with berries: Greek yogurt is a great source of protein and healthy fats (full-fat options) before exercise. Adding berries or granola on top helps boost the complex carbohydrates and are easily digestible before a workout. 
  • Toast with peanut butter and banana slices: Using whole-grain toast with banana slices offers a well-rounded source of complex carbohydrates and easily digestible sugars before exercise. Adding peanut butter gives this snack healthy fats to help balance blood sugar levels and sustain longer durations of exercise.
  • Oatmeal: Oatmeal is a popular pre-workout meal due to having easily digestible carbohydrates, amino acids for muscle protein synthesis, and minimal amounts of fiber, which helps to reduce GI distress during exercise. Add berries, nut butter, and granola to make it more fun and delicious.
  • Granola bars: Granola bars come in a wide range of flavors and ingredients, with most offering a balance of macronutrients necessary for pre and post-workout nutrition needs. Before a workout, find a granola bar with at least 20-30 grams of carbohydrates, 5-10 grams of protein, and 5-10 grams of healthy fats. 

Eating After a Workout

Post-workout nutrition is a critical component of any fitness routine, as it plays a pivotal role in replenishing glycogen stores, providing optimal energy levels throughout the day, improving blood sugar balance, and enhancing your immune system.5,7  

In addition, adequate post-workout nutrition accelerates the muscle recovery process by providing essential nutrients to repair and rebuild muscle tissue.7 This means you'll experience less muscle soreness and be ready to perform at your best in your next workout. 

Remember that regardless of the intensity or duration of your exercise, how you structure your diet daily is important for maintaining overall health and reaching your weight loss goals. Focus on high-quality foods immediately after your workout and throughout the day to help you stay on track toward a healthy lifestyle. 

Post-Workout Nutrition Options

Incorporating post-workout nutrition into your routine doesn't have to be complicated. Ideally, aim to consume a balanced meal within two hours of your workout, but if that's not possible, a protein shake or a nutrient-dense snack can be effective.8 The composition of your post-workout meal should include a mix of carbohydrates, protein, and healthy fats tailored to your dietary preferences and workout goals.7,8 If you are looking for some yummy inspiration, try some of these post-workout recovery snacks: 

  • Greek yogurt with granola and blueberries: This is a perfect combination of protein-packed yogurt, carbohydrates, and nutrients to help with muscle recovery and replenishing glycogen stores. Buy full-fat yogurt or add nuts or chia seeds for healthier fats.
  • Stir fry with lots of veggies: Using a carbohydrate base such as rice or quinoa in combination with a protein (i.e., chicken, tofu, tempeh) and vegetables helps to hit all of the macronutrient goals while providing excellent sources of vitamins and minerals to your post-workout snack. 
  • Protein drinks: If you want a quick and easy post-workout snack, try a protein shake mixed with whole milk, almond milk, or water, depending on your preference. You can purchase protein powder to make your shake or find pre-made shakes to take on the go.  
  • Chocolate milk: Chocolate milk continues to be a favorite amongst athletes for post-workout fueling as it is a perfect combination of proteins, fats, electrolytes, and carbohydrates and is easy and quick to consume on the go. 
  • Eggs and toast: Eggs provide a high-quality mix of proteins, fats, and amino acids for muscle recovery. Pairing your eggs with whole wheat or gluten-free toast balances this meal with carbohydrates to fill your daily glycogen stores and energy levels.  

5 Quick Tips to Boost Your Workouts

Boosting your workouts through proper nutrition timing doesn't have to be complicated. Here are some quick tips to help you get the most out of your exercise routine:

  1. Prioritize hydration: Dehydration can reduce endurance, muscle cramps, and overall exercise efficiency. Drink water throughout the day and consider consuming fluids with electrolytes if you plan an intense or lengthy workout or plan to exercise in the heat.
  2. Choose nutrient-dense foods: Opt for whole grains, lean proteins, healthy fats, fruits, and vegetables. These foods provide essential vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients that support energy production and muscle recovery and help sustain balanced blood sugar levels throughout the day.
  3. Pay attention to portion sizes before exercise: Consuming too much food can make you feel heavy and sluggish during exercise. Aim for a balanced meal or snack with the right proportions of carbohydrates, protein, and healthy fats tailored to your activity level and goals. This can be in the form of whole foods or liquid options if that is easier on your tummy. 
  4. Plan your meals based on workout timing: Timing your meals around your workout is crucial. If you plan to eat a larger meal, do so about one to two hours before your workout to allow for digestion. For a smaller snack, aim for 30 minutes to an hour before exercise. Post-workout meals or snacks should be consumed within two hours to optimize recovery.1
  5. Include a Protein Source Post-Workout: Post-workout, prioritize protein-rich foods or supplements to support muscle recovery and growth. A protein shake, lean meat, Greek yogurt, or beans are excellent options. Pair your protein source with carbohydrates to replenish glycogen stores and optimize nutrient absorption.

Learn More About How to Achieve Better Health Through Exercise with Signos’ Expert Advice.

If you have more questions on improving your health, fitness, and nutrition, seek the expert advice of the Signos continuous glucose monitor and Signos team. A continuous glucose monitor (CGM) can give you the insights to make smarter nutrition and exercise choices. The Signos app provides a unique, personalized program to help you lose weight and reach your health goals. Take this quiz to see if Signos is a good fit for you and reach your goals faster than ever before.  

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Topics discussed in this article:


  1. Rothschild, J. A., Kilding, A. E., & Plews, D. J. (2020). What should I eat before exercise? Pre-exercise nutrition and the response to endurance exercise: Current prospective and future directions. Nutrients, 12(11), 3473.
  2. Chad M. Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R. Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D. Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E. Smith-Ryan, Richard B. Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J. Arciero, Trisha A. VanDusseldorp, Michael J. Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N. Ziegenfuss, Alan A. Aragon & Jose Antonio (2017) International society of sports nutrition position stand: nutrient timing, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14:1, DOI: 10.1186/s12970-017-0189-4
  3. Pritchett, K., Bishop, P., Pritchett, R., Kovacs, M., Davis, J. K., Casaru, C., & Green, M. (2008). Effects of timing of pre-exercise nutrient intake on glucose responses and intermittent cycling performance. South African Journal of Sports Medicine, 20(3), 86-90.
  4. Gentle, H. L., Love, T. D., Howe, A. S., & Black, K. E. (2014). A randomised trial of pre-exercise meal composition on performance and muscle damage in well-trained basketball players. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11(1), 33.
  5. Chen, Y. J., Wong, S. H. S., Wong, C. K., Lam, C. W., Huang, Y. J., & Siu, P. M. F. (2008). The effect of a pre-exercise carbohydrate meal on immune responses to an endurance performance run. British Journal of Nutrition, 100(6), 1260-1268.
  6. Edinburgh, R. M., Koumanov, F., & Gonzalez, J. T. (2022). Impact of pre‐exercise feeding status on metabolic adaptations to endurance‐type exercise training. The Journal of Physiology, 600(6), 1327-1338.
  7. Berardi, J. M., Price, T. B., Noreen, E. E., & Lemon, P. W. (2006). Postexercise muscle glycogen recovery enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(6), 1106-1113.
  8. Ivy, J. L., Goforth Jr, H. W., Damon, B. M., McCauley, T. R., Parsons, E. C., & Price, T. B. (2002). Early postexercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. Journal of applied physiology, 93(4), 1337-1344.

About the author

Sarah is a Doctor of Physical Therapy, graduating from the University of Wisconsin Madison in 2017.

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Please note: The Signos team is committed to sharing insightful and actionable health articles that are backed by scientific research, supported by expert reviews, and vetted by experienced health editors. The Signos blog is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. If you have or suspect you have a medical problem, promptly contact your professional healthcare provider. Read more about our editorial process and content philosophy here.

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